China-US Trade Disputes: A Geo-political and Geo-economic Analysis
Edward K Y Chen
China-US trade disputes originate from more than trade issues. The primary cause is the struggle for global hegemony arising from China’s rise. A better understanding of the China-US trade disputes can be derived from the discussion on such geo-political and geo-economic issues as anti-globalization and the rise of populism, rebalance of power in Asia and the South China Sea disputes, Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and the Belt and Road (B&R) Initiative, and the vision of China 2025.
Edward Chen, CBE, GBS, JP, receiving his education at HKU and Oxford University (Linacre), is currently Chairman of the Board of HKU SPACE (School of Professional and Continuing Education) and Distinguished Fellow of the Hong Kong Institute for the Humanities and Social Sciences at HKU. He served as Director of the Centre of Asian Studies at HKU and was President of Lingnan University in Hong Kong.
Learners’ attitudes towards English as an international language
A growing number of studies continue to investigate learners’ attitudes towards English as an international language (EIL). The studies show that while learners strongly prefer learning native English, they show an interest in different varieties of English. In order to understand how this complex attitude towards language came into being - in the context of a globalised, international culture, the questionnaire was distributed to 660 Japanese university students. The analysis was organised according to five factors: target communities, multilingualism, varieties of English, language standards, and native English. It revealed that learners who had been exposed to different varieties of English and EIL experiences were more open to EIL and its usage. The research also incorporated nine group interviews which supported the quantitative results. This further revealed that the quality of EIL exposure was important. The explanation for these attitudes includes the learners’ traditional mindsets that are deeply rooted in their personal views of English usage in the current world. Those attitudes are affected not only by EIL exposure but also by historical, political, and economic factors. Thus, the study calls for a need to incorporate the effects of those factors into EIL-oriented pedagogy and accumulate contextualised research evidence about the successful implementation of EIL-oriented pedagogic actions.
Natsuno is a DPhil candidate in Education. She has taught Japanese and English in universities in the U.S. and Japan for four years. In the U.S., she was in charge of teaching oral skills to Japanese language learners at all levels. In Japan, she taught university English courses: intermediate and advanced English and the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) preparation. She studied her MSc in Applied Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition (ALSLA) at the University of Oxford, where she conducted her research on teachers’ and students’ beliefs and perceptions about teaching and learning English in Japanese Higher Education. Prior to coming to Oxford, she earned a master’s degree in Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) in the U.S. and completed several Japanese language pedagogy courses in the U.S. and Japan to become a qualified English and Japanese teacher. Her current research focuses on Japanese students’ attitudes towards English as an international language.