You are here

Robert Fox

Robert Fox is Emeritus Professor of the History of Science at the University of Oxford, where he held the chair of the history of science from 1988 to 2006. He is also an Emeritus Fellow of Linacre College and an Honorary Fellow of Oriel College. Since his retirement from the chair, he has held visiting professorships at Johns Hopkins University, East Carolina University, and the Czech National Technical University. He spent the fall semester 2013 as Gordon Cain Distinguished Fellow at the Chemical Heritage Foundation in Philadelphia and currently serves on the board of CHF. Between 2008 and 2014 he also edited Notes and Records of the Royal Society Journal of the History of Science. His main research interests are in the history of the physical sciences and technology in Europe since the eighteenth century, with special reference to France. His latest book, Science without frontiers. Cosmopolitanism and National Interests in the World of Learning, 1870-1940 (2016), is based on public lectures that he gave as Horning Visiting Scholar at Oregon State University in May 2013. Other recent publications include The Savant and the State. Science and Cultural Politics in Nineteenth-Century France,Thomas Harriot and his World. Mathematics, Exploration, and Natural Philosophy in Early Modern England (an edited volume of essays arising from the annual Thomas Harriot lectures that he has organized since 1990 at Oriel College), and The Oxford Handbook of the History of Physics, edited by him with Jed Buchwald. In 2016 he received the George Sarton Medal of the History of Science Society and the Alexandre Koyré Medal of the International Academy of the History of Science.

Robert Fox's page on the History Faculty's website can be found here.

Science without frontiers. Cosmopolitanism and national interests in the world of learning, 1870-1940 (Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press, 2016). ISBN: 978-0-87071—0. Science without frontiers examines the transition from the cosmopolitanism of international science in the later nineteenth century to its more nationalistic manifestations between the two world wars.






The Savant and the State. Science and Cultural Politics in Nineteenth-Century France (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012). ISBN: 978-1-4214-0522-3 and 1-4214-0522-9. The book, published in the Johns Hopkins University series, Studies in Political and Historical Science, is a history of the public face of French science from the Bourbon Restoration to the outbreak of the Great War.





Thomas Harriot and his World. Mathematics, Exploration, and Natural Philosophy in Early Modern England (Farnham: Ashgate, 2012). ISBN: 978-0-7546-6960-9. The authors in this volume, edited by Robert Fox, include Pascal Brioist, Charles Fantazzi, Robert Goulding, John Henry, Ian Maclean, Daniel Jon Mitchell, Mark Nicholls, Jon V. Pepper, Stephen Pumfrey, Matthias Schemmel, Jacqueline Stedall, Diccon Swan, and Larry E. Tise. 




The Oxford Handbook of the History of Physics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013). Pp.  x + 945. ISBN 978-0-19-969625-3The authors in  this volume, edited by Jed Z. Buchwald and Robert  Fox, include Nico Bertoloni Meli,  Paolo Brenni, Jed  Z. Buchwald, Sandro Caparrini, Hasok Chang, Olivier  Darrigol, Robert Fox, Craig Fraser, Graeme Gooday,  Niccolò Guicciardini, John L. Heilbron, Daniel  Kennefick, Helge Kragh, Anita McConnell, Daniel Jon  Mitchell, Iwan Rhys Morus, Kathryn M. Olesko,  Giuliano Pancaldi, Jürgen Renn, Eric Schliesser, John  A. Schuster, Suman Seth, Alan E, Shapiro, Terry  Shinn, Josep Simon, Chris Smeenk, Crosbie Smith, Friedrich Steinle, Larry Stewart, N. M. Swerdlow, and Anthony Turner



Publications by Robert Fox

The caloric theory of gases from Lavoisier to Regnault (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1971). Pp. xvi + 378
Sadi Carnot. Réflexions sur la puissance motrice du feu. Edition critique avec introduction et commentaire, augmentée de documents d’archives et de divers manuscrits de Carnot (Paris: Librairie Philosophique J. Vrin, 1978). Pp. 371; also editions in English (1986), German (1988), and Italian (1992)
Editor (with George Weisz) of The organization of science and technology in France, 1808–1914 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, and Paris: Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, 1980). Pp. x + 355
Sadi Carnot. Reflexions on the motive power of fire. A critical edition with the surviving scientific manuscripts. Translated and edited by Robert Fox (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1986). Pp. x + 230
Sadi Carnot. Betrachtungen über die bewegende Kraft des Feuers und die zur Entwicklung dieser Kraft geeigneten Maschinen. Edited by Robert Fox (Wiesbaden: Friedrich Vieweg Verlag, 1988). Pp. 160
Sadi Carnot. Riflessioni sulla potenza motrice del fuoco. Edited by Robert Fox (Turin: Bollati Boringhieri, 1992). Pp. lxii + 124
The culture of science in France, 1700–1900 (Aldershot: Variorum, 1992). Pp. xiii + 335
Editor (with Anna Guagnini) of Education, technology and industrial performance in Europe, 1850–1939 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, and Paris: Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, 1993). Pp. xiv + 302
Science, industry, and the social order in post-revolutionary France (Aldershot: Variorum, 1995). Pp. xiv + 291
Editor of Technological change. Methods and themes in the history of technology (Amsterdam: Harwood Academic, 1996). Pp. viii + 271; reissued in a paperback edition in 1998
Author of four chapters in Charles Coulston Gillispie, Pierre-Simon Laplace, 1749–1827. A life in exact science (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1997). Pp. xii + 323
Editor (with Pietro Redondi) of French institutions from the Revolution to the Restoration, book-length special issue of History and technology, 5, nos. 2–4 (1988)
Editor (with Anthony Turner) of Luxury trades and consumerism in Ancien Régime Paris. Studies in the history of the skilled workforce (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998). Pp. xviii +307
Editor (with Agustí Nieto-Galan) of Natural dyestuffs and industrial culture in Europe 1750–1880 (Canton, MA: Science History Publications, 1999). Pp. xx + 354
(with Anna Guagnini) Laboratories, workshops, and sites. Concepts and practices of research in industrial Europe, 1800–1914(Berkeley, Ca.: Office for History of Science and Technology, University of California at Berkeley, 1999). Pp. x + 214; initially published in two parts, with the same title, in Historical studies in the history of the physical and biological sciences, xxix, pt. 1 (1998), 55–139, and xxix, pt. 2 (1999), 191–289
Editor of Thomas Harriot. An Elizabethan man of science (Aldershot and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2000). Pp. xii + 317
Editor of Centre and periphery revisited. The structures

of European science, 1750–1914
, special issue of Revue de la Maison française d’Oxford, 1, no. 2 (2003). Pp. 191
Editor (with Graeme Gooday) of Physics in Oxford 1839–1939. Laboratories, learning, and college life (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005). Pp. xxii + 363
Editor (with Bernard Joly) of Echanges franco-britanniques entre savants depuis le XVIIe siècle. Franco-British interactions in science since the seventeenth century (London: College Publications, 2010). Pp. xxxii +326
Editor of Thomas Harriot and his world. Mathematics, exploration, and natural philosophy in early modern England (Farnham: Ashgate, 2012). Pp. xviii + 255
The savant and the state. Science and cultural politics in nineteenth-century France (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012).  Pp. x + 394
Editor (with Jed Z. Buchwald) of The Oxford handbook of the history of physics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013). Pp. x + 945
Science without frontiers. Cosmopolitanism and national interests in the world of learning, 1870-1940 (Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press, 2016). Pp. xvi + 160.
Articles and contributions to books
‘The background to the discovery of Dulong and Petit’s law’, The British journal for the history of science, iv (1968–9), 1–22
‘Dalton’s caloric theory’, in D. S. L. Cardwell (ed.), John Dalton and the progress of science (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1968), pp. 187–201
‘The John Scott medal’, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, cxii (1968), 416–30
‘The fire piston and its origins in Europe’, Technology and culture, x (1969), 355–70
‘Watt’s expansive principle in the work of Sadi Carnot and Nicolas Clément’, Notes and records of the Royal Society of London, xxiv (1969), 233–53
‘James Prescott Joule’, in J. D. North (ed.), Mid-nineteenth century scientists (Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1969), pp. 72–103
‘The Laplacian programme for physics’, Boletín de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias de la República Argentina, xlviii (1970), 429–37
‘The history of science’, in H. J. Perkin (ed.), History. An introduction for the intending student (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1970), pp. 173–86
‘The intellectual environment of Sadi Carnot: a new look’, Actes du XIIe Congrès International d’Histoire des Sciences. Paris, August 1968 (Paris, 1971), iv. 67–72
‘Scientific enterprise and the patronage of research in France 1800–1870’, Minerva, xi (1973), 442–73; reprinted in Gerard L’E. Turner (ed.), The patronage of science in the nineteenth century (Leyden: Noordhoff, 1976), pp. 1–51
‘The rise and fall of Laplacian physics’, Historical studies in the physical sciences, iv (1975), 89–136
‘Education for a new age. The Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers, 1815–30’, in D. S. L. Cardwell (ed.), Artisan to graduate. Essays to commemorate the foundation in 1824 of the Manchester Mechanics’ Institution, now in 1974 the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1975), pp. 23–38; translated as ‘Un enseignement pour une nouvelle ère: le Conservatoire des arts et métiers, 1815–1830’, Les cahiers de l’histoire du CNAM, i (1992), 75–92
‘The challenge of a new technology: theorists and the high-pressure steam engine before 1824’, in Actes de la table ronde ‘Sadi Carnot et l’essor de thermodynamique’. Paris, Ecole Polytechnique, juin 1974 (Paris: Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1976), pp. 149–67
‘La Société Zoologique de France: ses origines et ses premières années’, Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France, ci (1976), 799–812; translated as ‘The early history of the Société Zoologique de France’, in Fox, The culture of science in France, 1700–1900
‘The science of fire: J. H. Lambert and the study of heat’, in Colloque international et interdisciplinaire Jean-Henri Lambert. Mulhouse, 26–30 septembre 1977 (Paris: Editions Ophrys, 1979), pp. 325–42
‘The savant confronts his peers: scientific societies in France, 1815–1914’, in Fox and Weisz, The organization of science and technology in France, pp. 241–82
 ‘Positivisti, liberi pensatori e la riforma della scienza francese nel Secondo Impero’, in Antonio Santucci (ed.), Scienza e filosofia nella cultura positivistica (Milan: Feltrinelli, 1981), pp. 171–92; translated as ‘Positivists, free thinkers, and the reform of French science during the Second Empire’, in Fox, Science, technology, and the social order in post-revolutionary France
‘The scientist and his public in nineteenth-century France’, Information sur les sciences sociales/ Social science information, xxi (1982), 697–718
‘Science, the university, and the state in nineteenth-century France’, in Gerald L. Geison (ed.), Professions and the French state, 1700–1900 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1984), pp. 66–145
‘Science, industry, and the social order in Mulhouse, 1798–1871’ (Presidential Address to the British Society for the History of Science, 1982), The British journal for the history of science, xvii (1984), 127–68; translated as ‘Science, industrie et société à Mulhouse, 1798–1871’, in Culture technique, no. 18 (1988), 10–29.
‘L’attitude des professeurs des facultés des sciences face à l’industrialisation en France entre 1850 et 1914’, in Christophe Charle and Régine Ferré (eds.), Le personnel de l’enseignement supérieur en France aux XIXe et XXe siècles. Colloque organisé par l’Institut d’Histoire Moderne et Contemporaine et l’Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales les 25 et 26 juin 1984 (Paris: Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1985), pp. 135–47
‘From Corfu to Caledonia: the early travels of Charles Dupin, 1808–20’, in J. D. North and J. J. Roche (eds.), The light of nature. Essays in the history and philosophy of science presented to A. C. Crombie (Dordrecht, Boston, and Lancaster: Martinus Nijhoff, 1985), pp. 303–20
‘Contingency or mentality? Technical innovation in France in the age of science-based industry’, in Melvin Kranzberg (ed.), Technological education – Technological style (San Francisco: San Francisco Press, 1986), pp. 59–68; translated into Catalan as ‘Contingència o mentalitat? Innovació tècnica a França a l’època de la indústria basada en la ciència’, Quaderns d’història de l’enginyeria, iii (1999), 11–23.
‘Edison et la presse française à l’Exposition internationale d’électricité de 1881’, in Fabienne Cardot (ed.), Un siècle d’électricité dans le monde, 1880–1980. Actes du premier colloque international d’histoire de l’électricité, organisé par l’Association pour l’Histoire de l’Electricité en France. Paris, 15–17 avril 1986 (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1987), pp. 223–35
 ‘Francis Bacon: la cité à l’horizon de la science’, Sciences et devenir de l’homme. Cahiers du Mouvement Universel de la Responsabilité Scientifique, no. 10 (1987), 5–17
‘La professionalisation: un concept pour l’historien de la science française au XIXe siècle’, History and technology, iv (1987), 413–22
‘Les conférences mondaines sous le Second Empire’, Romantisme. Revue du XIXe siècle, lxv (1989), 49–57
‘Le accademie di provincia e la soparavvivenza della cultura nella Francia rivoluzionaria e post-rivoluzionaria’, Intersezioni. Rivista di storia delle idee, anno 9 (1989), 435–43; also published in Spanish as ‘Las academias provinciales y la supervivencia cultural en la Francia revolucionaria y postrevolucionaria’ in Alberto Elena, Javier Ordoñez, and Mariano Colubi (eds.), Después de Newton. Ciencia y sociedad durante la primera revolución industrial (Barcelona: Anthropos; and Santafé de Bogotá: Ediciones Uniandes 1999), pp.195–204, and in English as ‘The provincial academies and cultural survival in revolutionary and post-revolutionary France’, in Fox, Science, technology, and the social order in post-revolutionary France
‘Teoría y práctica. La tecnología de la máquina de vapor en la época revolucionaria’, Arbor, cxxxiv, nos. 527–8 (November–December 1989), 123–33; also published in French in Echanges d’influences scientifiques et techniques entre pays européens de 1780 à 1830. Actes du 114e Congrès National des Sociétés Savantes. Paris, 3–4 avril 1989 (Paris: Editions du Comité des Travaux Historiques et Scientifiques, 1990), pp. 37–46
‘Laplacian physics’, in R. C. Olby, G. N. Cantor, J. R. R. Christie, and M. J. S. Hodge (eds.), Companion to the history of modern science (London and New York: Routledge, 1990), pp. 278–94
‘Research, education, and the industrial economy in modern France’, in The academic research enterprise within the industrialized nations: comparative perspectives (Wash-ington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1990), pp. 95–107
‘The view over the Rhine: perceptions of German science and technology in France, 1860–1914’, in Yves Cohen and Klaus Manfrass (eds.), Frankreich und Deutschland. Forschung, Technologie und industrielle Entwicklung im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert(Munich: C. H. Beck-Verlag, 1990), pp. 14–24
‘Research and curatorship in the national science museums: a reflexion on threats and opportunities’, Impact of science on society, xi (1990), 263–71; translated into other languages in the various foreign-language editions of the journal
‘An uneasy courtship: rhetoric and reality in the relations between academic and industrial chemistry, 1770–1914’, in Atti del IV Convegno Nazionale di Storia e Fondamenti della Chimica. Venezia, 7–9 Novembre 1991 (Rome: Accademia Nazionale della Scienza detta dei XL, 1992), pp. 521–5
‘Wetenschap in opmars’, in Wolfram Fischer (ed.), Wetenschap in opmars. De Wording van Europa (Hilversum: HD Uitgevers, 1992), pp. 9–32; English and French versions published as ‘Centers of invention’, in Wolfram Fischer (ed.), The roots of western civilization (Danbury, Conn.: Grolier Educational Corporation, 1993), pp. 9–32, and as ‘L’évolution des connaissances’, in Wim Blockmans (ed.), L’identité de l’Europe. L’évolution des connaissances (Hilversum: HD Communication, 1993), pp. 9–32
‘France in perspective: education, innovation, and performance in the French electrical industry, 1880–1914’, in Fox and Guagnini, Education, technology and industrial performance in Europe, 1850–1939, pp. 201–26
‘Heeding the voice of history: perceptions of the decline of science and industry in modern Britain’, in Giuliano Pancaldi (ed.), Le università e le scienze. Prospettivi storiche e attuali/Universities and the sciences. Historical and contemporary perspectives(CIS, Università di Bologna: Bologna, 1993), pp. 59–65 (with Italian translation on pp. 66–71)
‘L’inventeur et l’invention: une approche historienne de la relation entre continuité et discontinuité’, Alliage, no. 20–1 (1994), 42–53
‘Science et pratique industrielle en France et en Grande-Bretagne, 1750–1850’, in Claude Blanckaert, Jean-Louis Fischer, and Roselyne Rey (eds.), Nature, histoire, société. Essais en hommage à Jacques Roger (Paris, Klincksieck, 1995), pp. 291–300
‘Regards étrangers sur l’Ecole Polytechnique, 1794–1850’, in Bruno Belhoste, Amy Dahan Dalmedico, Dominique Pestre, and Antoine Picon (eds.), La France des X. Deux siècles d’histoire (Paris: Economica, 1995), pp. 63–74; translated as ‘Exporting tradition: foreign perceptions of the Ecole Polytechnique, 1794–1850’, in Fox, Science, technology, and the social order in post-revolutionary France
‘Thomas Edison’s Parisian campaign: incandescent lighting and the hidden face of technology transfer’, Annals of science, liii (1996), 157–93
‘The laboratory as source and subject in the history of science’, in Anna Guagnini (ed.), I laboratori dell’università. Un incontro Bologna–Oxford (Bologna: Università di Bologna, Centro Internazionale per la Storia delle Università e della Scienza, 1996), pp. 31–41
‘The University Museum and Oxford science, 1850–80’, in Michael Brock and Mark Curthoys (eds.), History of the University of Oxford. Volume VI. Nineteenth-century Oxford, part I (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997), pp. 641–91
‘Electrical engineering and the changing face of higher education in Britain, 1850–1914’, in Laurence Badel (ed.), La naissance de l’ingénieur-électricien. Origines et développement des formations nationales électrotechniques (Paris: Association pour l’Histoire de l’Electricité en France, 1997), pp. 233–40
‘Coping with modernity: education and cultural heritage in the industrial age’, in J. M. Baker (ed.), Old institutions – new images(Perth, W.A.: John Curtin International Institute, Curtin University of Technology, 1997), pp. 1–7
‘Science, practice, and innovation in the age of natural dyes, 1750–1860’, in Maxine Berg and Kristine Bruland (eds.),Technological revolutions in Europe, 1760–1860 (Aldershot: Edward Elgar, 1997), pp. 86–95
‘A future for the past: history and the public understanding of science’ [lecture delivered at the inauguration of the Deutsches Museum’s Münchner Zentrum für Wissenshafts- und Technikgeschichte on 5 December 1997], Deutsches Museum Jahresbericht 1997, pp. 19–22; reprinted in German, as ‘Der Vergangenheit eine Zukunft: Wissenschaft und ihre Wahrnehmung in der Öffentlichkeit’, in Kultur & Technik, 22 Jahrgang, N.3 (1998), 42–5
‘Sartonian values in a changing world: the case of Isis’, in Marco Beretta, Claudio Pogliano, and Pietro Redondi (eds.), Journals and history of science [Biblioteca di Nuncius. Studi e testi XXXII] (Florence: Leo Olschki, 1998), pp. 119–30
‘Diversity and diffusion: the transfer of technologies in the industrial age’ [The 23rd Dickinson Memorial Lecture], Transactions of the Newcomen Society, lxx (1998–9), 185–96
‘Théologie naturelle et géologie à l’époque de William Buckland’, Travaux du Comité français d'histoire de la géologie, 3rd ser. xv (2001), 89–105
‘L’électricité industrielle aux congrès’, in Hélène Gispert (ed.), Par la science pour la patrie. L’Association française pour l’avancement des sciences (Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2002), pp. 241–7.
‘Science and government’, in Roy S. Porter (ed.), The Cambridge history of science. Volume 4. Eighteenth-century science(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 107–28
‘Contesting the public sphere: ministry, metropolis, and province in France (1830–80)’, in Fox, Centre and periphery revisited, 159–74
‘The context and practices of Oxford physics, 1839–77’, in Fox and Gooday, Physics in Oxford 1839–1939, 24–79; also joint-author (with Graeme Gooday and Tony Simcock) of ‘Physics in Oxford: problems and perspectives’, 1–23, and (with Graeme Gooday) of ‘Epilogue’, 301–10
‘Museums of science and technology in Europe since 1980’, in R. G. W. Anderson, Peter J. T. Morris, and D. A. Robinson (eds), Chymica acta. An autobiographical memoir by Frank Greenaway, with essays presented to him by his friends (London: Jeremy Mills, 2007), 215-28
‘’The many worlds of Thomas Harriot’, in Fox, Thomas Harriot and his world, 1-10
‘Sadi Carnot on political economy: science, morals, and public policy in Restoration France’, in Jed Z. Buchwald (ed.), A master of science history. Essays in honor of Charles Gillispie [Archimedes, vol. 30] (Dordrecht, etc.: Springer, 2012), 417-27
‘Science at Oriel’, in Jeremy Catto (ed.), The history of Oriel College (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013), 645-77
‘Laplace and the physics of short-range forces’, in Buchwald and Fox, Oxford handbook of the history of physics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013), 406-31
‘Thomas Harriot’s Oxford’, in Michela Malpangotto, Vincent Jullien, Efthymios Nicolaïdis (eds), L’homme au risque de l’infini. Mélanges d’histoire et de philosophie des sciences offerts à Michel Blay (Turnhout: Brepols, 2013), 103-109
“Science, celebrity, diplomacy: the Marcellin Berthelot centenary, 1927”, Revue d’histoire des sciences, 69 (2016), 77-115.
 ‘History and the public understanding of science’, in Kamlesh Mohan (ed.), Perspectives in the history of science and technology[title and details of publication to be confirmed]
(with George Weisz), ‘The institutional basis of French science in the nineteenth century’, in Fox and Weisz, The organization of science and technology in France, pp. 1–28
(with Anna Guagnini), ‘Britain in perspective: the European context of industrial training and innovation, 1880–1914’, History and technology, ii (1985), 133–50; modified version published in Italian as ‘La formazione dei tecnici in Europa 1880–1914: valori culturali e sviluppo tecnologico’, Annali di storia dell’impresa, ii (1986), 509–30
(with Anna Guagnini), ‘The flexible university: some historical reflexions on the analysis of education and the modern British economy’, Social studies of science, xvi (1986), 515–27
(with Anna Guagnini), ‘Classical values and useful knowledge: the problem of access to technical careers in modern Europe’, Daedalus, cxvi (1987), 153–71
(with Anna Guagnini) ‘Life in the slow lane: research and electrical engineering in Britain, France, and Italy, c.1900’, in Peter Kroes and Martijn Bakker (eds.), Technological development and science in the industrial age. New perspectives in the science–technology relationship [Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, volume 144] (Dordrecht, Boston, and London: Kluwer Academic, 1992), pp. 133–53
(with Anna Guagnini) ‘Introduction’, in Fox and Guagnini, Education, technology and industrial performance in Europe, 1850–1939, pp. 1–15
(with Anna Guagnini) ‘Scienza, industria e governo: le campagne per lo sviluppo della scienza in Europa tra 1890 e 1914’, in Raffaella Simili (ed.), Scienza, tecnologia e istituzioni in Europa. Vito Volterra e l’origine del CNR (Rome and Bari: Laterza, 1993), pp. 85–100
(with Anna Guagnini) ‘Starry eyes and harsh realities: education, research, and the electrical engineer in Europe, 1880–1914’, Journal of European economic history, xxiii (1994), 69–92
(with Anna Guagnini), ‘Dalle officine alle università: le origini e i percorssi dell’istruzione tecnica superiore in Europa’, in Vittorio Marchis (ed.), Storia delle scienze. Conoscenze scientifiche e trasferimento tecnologico (Turin: Einaudi, 1995), pp. 114–41
(with Anthony Turner) ‘Introduction’, in Fox and Turner, Luxury trades and consumerism in Ancien Régime Paris, pp. xvi–xviii
(with Jean-Marc Drouin), ‘Corolles et crinolines: le mélange des genres dans l’oeuvre de Henri Lecoq (1802–1871)’, Revue de synthèse, 4th ser. n.4 (1999), 581–99
 (with Anna Guagnini), ‘Sites of innovation in electrical technology, 1880–1914’ in L’Électricité en réseaux. Networks of power, special issue of Annales historiques de l’électricité, No. 2 (June 2004), 159–72
(with George Weisz), ‘Science in France’, in David C. Lindberg and Ronald L. Numbers (eds), The Cambridge history of science. Volume VIII. Science in national and international perspective (Cambridge, due for publication in 2005)
‘Technological and scientific studies and the democratisation of higher education’, essay review in Minerva, xviii (1980), 164–70
‘The Ecole Polytechnique criticised and vindicated’, essay review in Minerva, xix (1981), 329–34
‘Science at Oxford’, essay review in Annals of science, xxxviii (2001), 319–22
‘The cipher of the zodiac’, essay review in Metascience
Book reviews in Times literary supplement, Times higher education supplement, Nature, American scientist, Endeavour, Historical journal, History, English historical review, American historical review, Modern language review, Revue de synthèse, Isis, The British journal for the history of science, History of science, Annals of science, Archives internationales d’histoire des sciences, Ambix
Contribution to “The cipher of the zodiac”, book symposium on Jed Z. Buchwald and Diane Greco Josefowicz, The zodiac of Paris (Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ, 2010), in Metascience, 21 (2012), 509-30
Biographical articles
Articles on Anthanase Dupré, Marc A. A. Gaudin, Nicholas Leblanc, Alexis Thérèse Petit, Marc Auguste Pictet, Baden Powell, and Henri Victor Regnault, in Charles Coulston Gillispie (ed.), Dictionary of scientific biography (16 vols., New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1970–80). I also contributed to the book-length article on Pierre Simon de Laplace, now revised and published (1997) as a volume, authored by Charles Gillispie, Ivor Grattan-Guinness, and myself, by Princeton University Press
Article on Charles Dupin, in Claudine Fontanon and André Grelon (eds.), Les professeurs du Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers. Dictionnaire biographique, 1794–1955 (2 vols., Paris: Institut national de la recherche pédagogique and Conservatoire national des Arts et Métiers, 1994), vol. i, pp. 469–78
Articles on Henry Acland, Robert Bellamy Clifton, John Dawson, Thomas Garnett, Margaret Gowing, and William Irvine Jr, in the Oxford dictionary of national biography (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004)
Also contributions to
Encyclopedia Universalis (20 vols., Paris: Encyclopedia Universalis, 1973, and later editions)
Enciclopedia della scienza e della technica (12 vols., Milan: Mondadori, 1976)
Justin Wintle (ed.), Makers of nineteenth century culture (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1982)
John L. Heilbron (ed.), Oxford companion to the history of modern science (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004)
‘Science and belief in eighteenth-century France’, a talk broadcast on several occasions since 1974 for the Open University course AMST 283 (Science and belief: Copernicus to Darwin), and on the BBC World Service
Contributions to television programmes on the transfer of technology between Europe and China (Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 1987), on scientific societies in nineteenth-century Europe (Télé-Québec, 1988), on science and the Enlightenment (BBC/Open University, 1992), and on the industrial revolution in Europe (Belgian State Television Service, 1994)
Radio broadcast on science and culture in modern Europe for Radio France (France culture), December 1994; interviewed by Michèle Chouchan